Goggle Adsense HQ: In this article, we will talk about the positioning of Google Adsense ads, identifying click fraud, ways to tackle click fraud, advantages and disadvantages of Google Adsense.

1. Proper Positioning of Advertisements
1.1 Where Adsense Advertisements Should Appear & Why
2. Click Fraud
2.1 Ways to Identify and Tackle Click Fraud Quickly
3. Advantages & Disadvantages of Adsense
3.1 Disadvantages Of Adsense
3.2 Advantages Of Adsense
4. The Future of Google Adsense
5. Why Advertisers support Google Adsense
6. What Are Top Paying Keywords

1. Proper Positioning of Advertisements

After using Google AdSense for a while you must have begun to ask yourself if there's anything you could do to improve your AdSense based earnings. But before you go on experimenting with this and that setup you have to realize a couple of things about positioning.

The first thing you should know is that there is no universal position that is guaranteed to improve your earnings. That being said, the part above about experimenting is meant to be taken literally. You have to try as many setups as you can to find the solution with the greatest benefit.
Proper Positioning of Advertisements

But, of course certain places usually work better then others. Of course, Google recognizes this and they publish a "heat map" of how much revenue ads placed in certain portions of the page can bring you. Experimenting is often the best way you can find, what suits the sub conscious mind of your audience.

Generally the most profitable ads are placed within the main content, generally right above it. But this is by no means a rule and there are some exceptions to it. One known exception is having a news site or something similar to a new site.

If this is your case, you will often find that you generate more earnings by placing your ads at the bottom of the content, right before comments begin. This is because as users finish reading a story, they have a short moment where they're looking for something more to do. And your Google AdSense ads can offer them that something.

Also, placing ads to the left side of your page seems to work better almost all the time. Of course, this is logical because text is generally written from left to right (unless you come from certain countries where it's the other way around).

People will finish a sentence and return their eyes to the left position, which means they have a higher chance of spotting your ads.

Also, there's a bit more to this then just having ads visually in the right place. If you have more then one ad you have to worry about where they're located in the code as well. And there's a very good reason for this concern.

Google AdSense fills the ads in the order it finds them in the source. That means that if the first add you have in the code isn't the one generating the highest revenue, you may soon start to lose money, rather then earn more.

This is because if AdSense doesn't have anymore ads it will supplement your space with public service ads or just leave it blank altogether. That means that, if you're unlucky, you could end up with your most profitable locations not having any good ads at all. To supplement your revenues

There are other issues with how many ads you should place in your site. The problem is that if you have too many, rather then generate more income, you'll have a lower click through rate, as visitors tend not to follow ads from the places where these come in excess.

You have to constantly keep track of how the users interact with your site. Keep an eye out for where the visitors will be looking at your site most. This is generally the place where you want to use your first ads. Also try not to place ads in annoying positions as that can guarantee a lower click through rate.

Of course, you always need to have ads that blend in with your content and generally don't make the visitor's presence on your site an unpleasant one. The key is providing an enjoyable experience for your visitor, whilst generating revenues from their exploration.

And again, ultimately the best revenue will be earned through a lot of experimentation. Be sure to use AdSense's channels feature and be on the look out for how certain ads in your pages are doing whilst altering the positions to better supplement your earnings.

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1.1 Where Adsense Advertisements Should Appear & Why

When deciding whether to incorporate Adsense into your website there are several factors to consider. Many feel that it diminishes their brand, whilst others see it as a useful tool for visitors which creates revenues and makes their content profitable.

The choice can largely come down to the commercial goals and the purpose of your website. Many businesses who sell products decide to place Adsense adverts within their website. This would appear to be a strange choice, opening up opportunities for rivals to promote their service or product to your potential customer base.
Where Adsense Advertisements Should Appear & Why

Many publishers claim that they are only doing this to allow companies who provide ancillary services to advertise. These claims have some merit, as those who for example sell pillows could provide those who sell bedding with an opportunity to advertise.

Although this would make sense, there are still those online retailers who allow rivals to penetrate their audience. Many claim that there are still benefits in allowing your direct competitors to advertise within your website. One of these is that ultimately if visitors wish to see your competitors they would be able to see them through a Google search regardless. This may be true however the thought of an established brand like coco-cola having a Pepsi advert in their website is not even a possibility.

Another factor which is considered in this situation is that publishers do not feel that Adsense is effective in making conversions. They feel that visitors who would click on adverts are not highly qualified customers, as they would quickly navigate to the materials or products that interest them if they were.

Despite Adsense being a questionable choice for online retailers, it is surely a good supplementary service for other varieties of online publishers. For example, a website which provides a free service like dictionary.com gets high levels of traffic, and is able to make their service profitable through Google adsense. This has been the case for Bloggers who originally provided content free of charge, being unable to reach the scale that is necessary to contract with advertisers directly.

This could also apply to other previously free services, including wider forms of information broadcast, and news for example. In 2006 a man who later published a selection of Videos claims to make $19,000 a month through adsense, claiming that he was also contacted through Google to help him increase the CTR (Click Through Rate) that he achieved. The thought of success like this has been a major factor in stimulating online publishers to opt for Adsense.

Many publishers also claim that Google Adsense makes their website look more professional. Those who are able to contract with advertisers are generally seen to provide a service with large appeal, and therefore those unfamiliar with the program may feel that the Adsense advertiser is in this position.
Where Adsense Advertisements Should Appear???

Adsense however, is also aligned with those publishers who use the service purely to provide links to adverts. Everyone has done a Google search, clicked on an Google Adwords advert and came into a website which reads top ten resources on…

This is a major problem, as is generally something that surfers find frustrating. If people see that it says adverts by Google, and they then see adverts by Google on another site, they may align that site with consumer unfriendly practices. This is therefore an issue which Google has to address, to maintain Adsense as a reputable service.

Regardless of the disadvantages and the websites for which the service may be inappropriate it is still a useful tool for website visitors. Those who visit a website, and click on a link provide revenues for the publisher, whilst those who provide free services are able to generate revenue.

The only fear that Google has, is that rival PPC programs offer better deals to publishers and they decide to go elsewhere, therefore taking advertisers with them. However, ultimately it is best for advertisers and publishers if they largely remain in same PPC circuit.

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2. Click Fraud

If you're using Google AdWords or AdSense you must have heard about an emerging practice in the underworld of computing called "click fraud". But what exactly is click fraud and how is it accomplished?

Well Google AdSense uses a payment mechanism that awards a certain amount of money to a publisher (someone who holds an AdSense banner on their page) every time a person clicks on the said banner. So click fraud is the attempt to have people clicking the ads just so that they can earn a greater income.
Avoiding Click Fraud

There are people setting up sites for the sole purpose of fraudulently generating revenue through Google's AdSense program. These users achieve an incredible number of clicks through many methods, some complex and sophisticated and some rudimentary and simple.

One of the most complex is through the use of so called "hitbots". These are automated programs who emulate clicking the links in Google AdSense banners (there are some that actually click the banners as well).

Google's AdSense protection scheme is by no means perfect and nearly anyone can find the details of surmounting the protection mechanism, ironically just by doing a Google search.

Another, more rudimentary method is to hire a lot of people in a poor country to click the links on your site. This means these people will actually sit all day and just click links so you can earn a fortune. They come from very poor countries like India, and they're prepared to do so for just $0.50 an hour.
Avoiding Click Fraud Trolls

Of course, there's a problem with this mechanism. Once Google receives a large number of clicks from a single address, the address and the site that had the Google AdSense banner will be banned, and the illicit behavior might even get the fraudster sued.

To prevent this from happening, many people use a large number of proxy servers for the purpose of clicking. These are basically trojans, located on computers throughout the world (though mostly in the US). What's even more daunting is that these clicks will appear to originate from an actual computer so such scams are really hard to detect.

And don't think this happens only in isolated instances. There is a great deal of illegal activity in this domain.

In fact there's so much that if search engine companies don't increase their security with such programs as AdSense, such criminal behavior could become more become even more damaging.

Google has a very strict policy regarding click fraud, and it has sued those employing such techniques in the past. But while the search engine giant tries its best to minimize the risk of click fraud there's certainly room for a lot of improvement.

It is estimated that more then 20% of the clicks that follow an AdSense link are just done in order to get money from the person paying for the ad. Some people believe the number of fraudulent clicks to be even twice as large.

There are a great deal more schemes involving click fraud, such as groups of AdSense publishers clicking each other's links (which is referred to as "clicking rings", or spamming people so that they click such links.
How Click Fraud can hurt your earning
Despite Google still holding click fraud on a leash, the phenomenon is certainly raising concerns for the advertisers on AdWords, but despite this advertising with Google's AdSense still remains more profitable for the advertiser, as opposed to traditional untargeted advertising schemes.

There are some means of protection against such schemes and all advertisers should be savvy enough to employ them. Many advertisers choose to avoid the content network all together for fear of click fraud.

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2.1 Ways to Identify and Tackle Click Fraud Quickly

Ways to Identify and Tackle Click Fraud QuicklyIdentifying and tracking examples of click fraud is the first step to eradicating the problem. Click fraud is an enormous drain on the resources of advertisers operating on a national and international scale, estimated to occupy around 30% of all pay per click advertising spend. With so much at stake, its no wonder the search engines are investing so much time and effort into devising solutions.

One way in which Search Engines and other pay per click programme providers have attempted to curb the growing click fraud problem is through introducing IP address repetition algorithms. These formulae are designed to pick up on suspicious click patterns emanating from a singular IP address, which can help to uncover the existence of click farms and competitor-led sabotage, as well as identifying potential fraudsters at source.
Google can track click fraudsters easily

However, there is an array of problems with this method of attempting to identify the fraudsters. Firstly, fraudsters logging on through a dialup modem, DSL line or cable modem can almost completely bypass this check, as with every new online session, a new IP address is generated.

Furthermore, there is an extensive range of software available to alter IP addresses, which again can be used for 'cheating' the algorithm. Cookie and session tracking are other methods by which search engines can attempt to uncover potential fraudulent activity, but again there are ways around these for the fraudsters.

More comprehensive software is being developed which profiles and reports on the browsing habits of each click-through to enable companies to track and monitor suspicious behavior, although this could be seen by many as intrusive and ineffective as anything on a small scale is still likely to go unnoticed, based on the vast coverage of ads across the internet.

Ways to Identify and Tackle Click Fraud QuicklyThe problem of click fraud recently hit the headlines with a class action raised against Google, prompting Google to offer $90million as a potential settlement. Perhaps an acceptance of their responsibilities, Google's offer goes some way to suggest the extent of click fraud, and its vast costs to the internet economy.

There are a number of self-help remedies that can be implemented to keep an organization out of trouble. The first of these remedies is the reliance on search engine optimization and organic listings. If a site is well and fully optimized, it could eventually realize a ranking that another site is willing to pay $2.50 a click for.

Similarly, with organically high rankings there are no clickthrough rates, therefore the costs associated with PPC are not applicable. Although the process is significantly more laborious and takes significantly longer to see results, the SEO process is much cheaper in the long run, and with an estimated 25-30% of all clicks being performed fraudulently, an organically high listing can save money which would otherwise be drained by click fraud for more beneficial reinvestment.

Year on year, as the pay per click advertising market continues to grow and expand, surely click fraud will follow suit. Unless an effective means of preventing click fraud is developed and successfully implemented, buyers will steadily lose confidence in the advertising medium and turn to more effective, less wasteful marketing methods, which would seriously hit the search engines and could potentially threaten the online economy as a whole.

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3. Advantages & Disadvantages of Adsense

In this section, we will talk about advantages & disadvantages of Google's Adsense in detail.

3.1 Disadvantages Of Adsense

As Google's Adsense becomes the most popular publisher program for Price per Click advertising, flaws and disadvantages still exist. Since its inception advertisers have chosen to advertise in search because they felt that visitors would be less targeted. This is a genuine concern and one that makes perfect sense. If you are visiting a website, and notice an advert then the chances are you are not particularly concentrating on its content.
Disadvantages Of Adsense

Adsense has also become so popular that people can distinguish them from other adverts. Therefore people may choose to ignore them without even paying them a thought. This has been a hot topic discussed by Bloggers and one that could contain a lot of truth. Many have blamed Google for this, and their decision to include text that says “ads by Google” beneath the advert.

Many publishers also fail to ever gain the revenues they anticipated when starting the program. Those only gaining 30 – 40 visitors a day to their website would be unlikely to earn even one dollar a day. Many advertisers talk of rates such as 1.5%- 5% for traffic to click conversion, whilst only gaining around $0.10 per click.

The maths doesn’t work out great, but you can hardly blame advertisers or Google if you are not bringing enough traffic. The key is to bring targeted traffic to your website that are likely to click on adverts, however it is said that it may be easier on other programs which allow figures such as 75% share of advertising revenues for publishers.
Cons or Disadvantages Of Adsense
Google Adsense also has to tackle the issue of click fraud which is anticipated to count for over 15% of click through rate in content. This has meant that advertiser’s who have been particularly affected, have moved away to other programs or have restricted their advertising to search.

This has meant that there is less competition in content and therefore smaller revenues for publishers. Publisher’s who previously had high yielding ads, are now having to alter their content to ensure they get any adverts at all. This has largely been the fault of the publishers themselves however the issue is one that; if not addressed could bring adsense to its knees.

Google Adsense also has the disadvantage of not paying enough for their search program. Other similar programs pay higher rates, and if publishers decide to go elsewhere then problems will occur for advertisers and publishers alike.

Although Google fail to pay enough for search another major problem with Adsense is that it does not have a powerful database of graphic adverts. Many advertisers prefer showing graphically drive advertisements, however this has yet to materialise. As several other programs exist for PPC graphic distribution problems could occur.

Whilst this may not be a problem for all publishers, many complain that the adverts within their site do not change, so their repeat visitors fail to see fresh adverts so therefore fail to visit them. This is a problem which could be addressed through making adverts rotate. However if adverts rotate then how will that be linked with advertisers paying a rate per click? These are all problems which Google has to address to ensure that Adsense remains the market leader.

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3.2 Advantages Of Adsense

Google Adwords on the other hand also has major advantages, and remains the best in the market. It’s CPC rates can be chosen by the advertisers so that even when they feel that they are not getting the results they expect they can lower their prices whilst still using the service.

Whilst many issues remain with Google Adsense the program still remains the most popular amongst publishers, whilst Google Adwords remains the most popular amongst advertisers; with a database of over 140,000 Adwords will remain on top for the time to come.

Advantages Of AdsenseGoogle Adsense for search provides publishers with the opportunity to provide a search tool through their website. The search tool provides results which contain adwords adverts, and therefore publishers can generate revenues.

The effectiveness of this tool for publishers comes in its functionality for website visitors. Those who have browsed resources on a website may return to Google to complete a search. If this resource is contained within a website they are currently on, then they are likely to use the publisher’s website for search, and therefore the publisher can receive returns.

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4. The Future of Google Adsense

There are many ideas springing up concerning what AdSense will look like in the future and how the system will change as opposed to what it is now.
The Future of Google Adsense

Firstly, it's clear that targeting algorithms will become even better and more powerful then they are now. This has clearly been seen with the Google search engine itself over the last few years and it should be of no surprise as this happens with Google AdSense.

Advertisers will appear in more appropriate results and those advertisers who manipulate their content to allow high paying keywords to appear may struggle to do this unless it is actually appropriate to their content.

Another thing which is bound to happen is more protection for AdWords advertisers concerning click fraud. Google acknowledges this to be a very key issue that it needs to address as quickly as possible and there's no doubt it will happen as fast as possible. At the moment those who have high levels of traffic, can easily disguise IP addresses and increase CTR ( Click Through Rate).

Google is always keen on improving its products and this has been seen before in AdSense. The search engine company has introduced site-targeted AdSense CPM, "smart pricing" and domain blocking and there will probably be improvements that have already been added by other similar sites.

One such example is the option for the advertiser to have more control over where the content is being displayed. This could mean blocking your site from displaying on several addresses that host Google AdSense banners.

Another idea that has been advanced is that Google will integrate AdSense in other forms of media like newspapers or television and so on. While this might seem to be more on the science-fiction side of the facts there's no indication that this might not happen.

Google have access to an international array of over 150,000 advertisers of whom may choose to penetrate offline markets in different countries. With Google’s strong network of advertisers, they may choose to appoint or allow offline distributors to create a format for Adwords advertising in content, in search and now offline.

More options could be implemented for AdSense publishers, allowing them to specify keywords of their own. While Google has been reluctant of this there's no indication that this will not happen in the future.

Also, a lot of people are demanding a clear specification of the pricing policy of AdSense. Google has given no indication of why this isn't public information but at this moment it seems highly unlikely that such information will ever be present on Google AdSense.

Another feature that could find itself into AdSense would be letting website publishers see which links are generating clicks on their website and based on what keywords they arrive there.

However, one thing that could happen is a way for users to fix their issues with low AdSense generated income on their site. This could be done through an on-line wizard or something similar that would make suggestions to website owners based on their contents.

But the major buzzword of the day is RSS. The possibility of sending targeted ads directly to users without requiring any navigation on their behalf is becoming a reality with RSS. And there are clear signs that Google isn't going to let such an opportunity pass by.

This is what "interactive television" and similar items have been trying to do for quite some time now. But the Internet would be a much better medium for this, because there are no mediums quite as interactive as the Internet.

But in the end, this is mostly speculation and we are bound to have Google surprising us with new features we would have never thought of.

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5. Why Advertisers support Google Adsense?

Google is the biggest search engine on the web. It controls over 40% of Internet searches, and with that it controls pay per click advertising (pay per click). PPC involves the advertiser paying a rate for every click through (CTR) in which the advertisers set. As their budget increases, their position increases, and as their position increases, they get more traffic.

Why Advertisers support Google Adsense?
This has lead to over 140,000 companies choosing to advertise with them, and they advertise in a number of ways. The first way is through is through appearing on Google searches, the second is through appearing on distributors websites, and the third is through appearing in distributors search results.

As advertisers appear in Google searches, the question is sometimes asked. Why do they choose to advertise with distributors as well?

One reason for this is scalability. Those who originally choose to advertise in search results and who were getting a ROI (return on investment) will decide at one point that they need to identify other advertising opportunities. With thousands of websites which have the capacity to display their adverts the advertisers can gain further exposure very quickly.

Another reason why advertisers choose to advertise in Google distributors websites is that it gains them further exposure. 60% of internet users do not use Google, so the advertiser can appeal to a wider audience through choosing to opt for distribution channels.

Many website users may be looking to buy a product such as a phone, yet instead of coming across a website which sells such a product, they come across an article. If the article is on a website which contains Adsense then inevitably advertisers can use this channel to penetrate their audience.

Another reason why advertisers choose adsense is because they trust Google. The company is renowned for being an ethical company who are fun to work whilst providing free services to millions worldwide. Advertisers feel that money invested with Google is safe.
Adsense alternatives are not so great

Despite the evolution of click-fraud and its inevitable disadvantages for advertisers they appear to understand that this is an issue which Google wants to stop and hopefully will eventually. Advertisers are happy that Google admits a problem exits and provides refunds accordingly.

The trust in Google also stems from a trust in pricing. The pricing is set by market forces and therefore advertisers never feel that publishers or Google are overpricing the service. This means that as long as advertisers are able to advertise they will continue to do so, if not at the same rates.

Another strong advantage for advertisers is that they can appear where publishers promote their service. An example of this can seen if you consider a publisher who is discussing the benefits of new IT software. If a software retailer appears on the website then inevitably they will be the likely source from which the web surfer will purchase the product. If the surfer is not interested then you could argue that they would not click on the advert.

The service which Google provides has created an opportunity for businesses of all sizes to advertise. Although the issue of click fraud still plagues the service it is till widely regarded as the best. New businesses attempt to promote themselves on the web, whilst established brands alike choose to attract interest in their service using the same technique.

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6. What Are Top Paying Keywords

In people's search for higher incomes from Google AdSense a lot of AdSense publishers are looking to find those keywords that really bring the best income possible. The higher an advertiser pays for a keyword, they more the advertiser receives when they click on a link.

But how can you find such words for your site? Well, the answer to that question depends a little on who you are and what you're prepared to do to get those keywords. But the general good news is that you can indeed find such words if you need them.

What Are Top Paying Keywords on GoogleOf course, if you can afford such a solution, one of the best ways of getting your hands on those words would be to pay for them. There are specialized companies that do business by finding people good keywords, not only for the purpose of more AdSense revenue but for search engine optimization as well.

Such a service can be found on "Top Paying Keywords" and this is a no-brainer to getting relevant content on your site and increasing your revenue by a whole bunch quickly.

Of course, if such a solution does not work for you, you can ultimately resort to a method of personal investigation. That means you try out keywords by yourself and see which ones work better or worse for yourself.

While you might also be doing this for the first method (paying someone else to get the keywords) it would probably be better then this because you'd at least be narrowing down search to certain items.

While you're trying this make sure to keep using AdSense's 'channels' feature along the way as it can be a very good way of letting you know which sections of your site are generating income and which aren't.

Of course, you can also yield a great amount of help from AdSense's arch enemy Overture. Overture gives you the possibility of entering keywords and finding out not only how much advertisers are paying to get them on your page, but how much people are clicking on the words as well. This service can be found at: PixelFast.

You can also try out a tool called Word Tracker. What this tool can do is tell you how many sites are already using the same keywords. Learn from this lesson and don't try to use the words that a lot of people are already using.

Also, a great aid may very well be found in Google itself. Search Google for any keywords you may wish to include in your pages and look at the results. The results on the left will probably be your competitors (and if they have Google AdSense ads on their page you can bet then are) while the links on the right display ads relevant to your search.

If your search doesn't yield any Google AdSense results then you might want to reconsider including those keywords in your site.

Make sure you don't use any dead words (words that don't get any links on AdSense other then public ads. That is probably the most important thing you should be doing.

Of course these are only a few methods of getting out of the dead zone and starting to make serious money with Google AdSense. If you've seen a lot of people with "not so hot" websites generating a lot of Google AdSense revenue, using these tips can get you right behind them (or in front if you're really smart) very fast. Although this is the case it is also very important to remember that having the highest paying words does not mean that you make the most money. You have to also consider how many times the advert is clicked on.

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Google Adsense HQ: Everything You Need To Know About It, Practical Guides & Tips

Google Adsense HQ: Positioning of Ads, Identifying Click Fraud & Others

This the comprehensive and definitive Google Adsense guide and has everything that you will need to Know with practical guide and tips.

1. What is Google Adsense And What Do You Know It?
2. Why use Google Adsense
2.1 How Adsense Changed the Internet Thundrously
2.2 Google Adsense is for Everyone - How?
2.3 Adsense Pros and Cons you need to know
2.4 Google Adsense and the Web Surfers
2.5 How Much Money Will I Earn Through Google Adsense
3. Getting Started With Adsense: Guide
3.1 Tools for Adsense & Help
3.2 Turning Traffic Into Adsense Traffic Wisely
3.3 Google PPC Content or Search: Which is Best?
3.4 Succes On Adsense: How?
3.5 SEO for Adsense: Right or Wrong
3.6 Text vs Graphics on Google Adsense
3.7 The Advantages of Adsense For Search Guide

1. What is Google Adsense?

If you look at the Internet a few years back, you'll see that advertising was done in a way that was
Google Adsense HQ
very similar to other types of media like television, or actually, more like what you see in a newspaper.

You'd enter a site, and in some location you'd get to see a banner (often these were quite numerous and very large), which would present and ad for whatever company was paying for adds on your space.

But there was one problem with this kind of advertising. It really wasn't exploiting the fact that the
adds weren't in some newspaper, but were instead presented over the Internet.

What is Google Adsense

You've probably noticed a lot of things like this over the pages you've browsed. You're looking at an on-line shop, looking for a watch but you get a banner that advertises a car.

While you might, at some later point want to buy a car, right now you're looking for a watch and it would have surely been nice if the banner were advertising a watch, because then you would have probably clicked it.

Google Adsense HQ: Everything You Need to Know | Practical Guide & Tips

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Bringing up the rear for the best-selling mobile phone of all time is the Samsung Galaxy S III.

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  Sold: 60 million

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Census 2017: Ranking of 125 Districts
Population Census 2017 results (Urbanization)

According to census 2017 results of Pakistan, KPK has 5 districts with 0% urbanization or facilities, 6 districts with 0-10% urbanization and 8 districts with 10-20% urbanization. This should be cause of concern as opposed to advertisements.

Here is full ranking of 125 most urbanized districts of Pakistan according to census 2017.

Census 2017: Ranking of 125 Districts

Pakistan Census 2017: Ranking of 125 Districts Urbanization

Best 200 Success After Failure Quotes

Best 200 Success After Failure Quotes | Oops! Success here I come

Electrical Plug?Wiring a plug is not difficult but you would be surprised how often people get it wrong. They put themselves and their families at risk from electric shock or fire by not following six simple rules: 

1. Strip off the outer cable sheathing to expose 4cm of the insulated wires. Remove the insulation to leave about 1cm of exposed metal core on each wire. Twist the strands of wire together neatly.

2. Connect the wires to the correct terminals. The brown Live wire to the terminal on the fuse holder marked L, the blue Neutral wire to the terminal marked N and the green and yellow Earth wire to the terminal at the top of the plug marked E or . 

Some appliances do not have an earth wire because they are double insulated and have no exposed metal parts - marked 

3. Depending on the design of the plug, fit the exposed metal core of each wire through or around each terminal and tighten the terminal screws. Ensure that the insulation reaches right up to each terminal and that there are no loose strands of wire.

4. Fit the flex firmly into the cord-grip making sure that the grip fastens on the outer insulating sleeve of the flex.

5. Read the instructions on the appliance to see what rating of fuse is required and fir the correct fuse in the plug

6. Fit the plug cover - make sure that none of the outer insulation is cracked or chipped. 

Plug errors - check you have not made any of these! 

Electrical Plug - Step 1
Blue wire connected to the Live terminal. What's wrong with this?Green and Yellow cable connected to Live terminal. Any problems with this?

Electrical Plug - Step 2?
Plenty of bare wire here - but the plug is connected correctly - isn't it?These are the old wiring colors but they are connected properly

Electrical Plug - Step 3?
The earth wire is not connected, but the appliance will work won't it?Perfectly wired, no problem. Is something missing?

Properly Wired Electrical Plug - Neoztv.com
A correctly wired plug 

Always make sure that your plugs are wired and fused correctly. If it still confused, always check with a qualified electrician.

How To Wire An Electrical Plug?

Which tools to use: 

Paste (use the strongest available recommended on the wallpaper)
Hang Or Paste A Wall Wallpaper
Sharp knife (like a trimming knife)
Pasting brush 
Dry hanging brush 
Seam roller 
Pasting table (they're cheaper than you think!) 


As wallpaper will look the best when hung according to the layout of your room, it is important to determine where to start wallpapering before anything else. If you're going to wallpaper above the fireplace, you must start here. Find the middle of the fireplace and decide whether you want a piece of wallpaper on each side or whether you want this to be the middle of your first piece.

If you don't have a fireplace, or you're not going to wallpaper it, you should start on the wall with the main window, working away from the window on either side. This will ensure the pattern will be the same either side of the window. Although this might cause an overlap in another area of the room, it will look better around the window. It will also prevent joins showing up more than necessary.

As both sides of the wallpapering will have to meet somewhere, make sure it's in a less conspicuous corner (for example, the corner behind the door). This will give a much better finish than when you start at one end of the window and wallpaper all the way round.

How to get started 

Draw a plumb line to ensure the wallpaper will hang straight. You can hang a weight from a piece of string to mark the plumb line. Measure the height of the wall, adding about 100mm. This will help you hang the wallpaper, and after hanging, you can trim the excess paper.

Cut the paper with a sharp knife, for example a trimming knife. Now cut the next piece of wallpaper, making sure the pattern aligns with the pattern on the first piece of wallpaper. Then, after you've hung the first piece on the wall, the third piece can be cut, aligning the pattern again with the second piece, etc. This is the best way to prevent any major mistakes in cutting the paper!

Paste the first piece by (on one side) overlapping the edges of the table with the wallpaper. This will prevent paste from getting on your table on this end. Starting at the centre of the paper, work the paste to the overhanging end of the paper. Then move the paper up and hang it slightly over the edge at the other side of the table. Now paste this end of the paper. Carefully fold the pasted end of the paper before moving along and lining up the paper.

This will help soak the paste into the paper and prevent any paste from sticking to your carpet! After pasting the other end, fold the end neatly to the already folded part, aligning the edges. Let it soak for a while in order to make the paper easier to work with and it will also ensure a better adhesion to the wall. While this is soaking, you can paste the second piece of wallpaper. Make sure however, that you keep an eye on the soaking times.

To hang your wallpaper, make sure you only unfold the end of your wallpaper that will reach the ceiling. Start hanging it along the plumb line. Make sure you do leave an overhang, so that you can trim along the ceiling later. While you're hanging the paper, smooth it by using your dry hanging brush. Work towards the edges of the paper. Now you can unfold the bottom end of the paper and press it slightly against the wall, pushing any air bubbles out to the sides. You can now trim the overhang with a trimming knife.

The following pieces can now be lined up to match the pattern. It is best if the paper overruns slightly to the other wall. As the walls hardly ever will join at a straight angle, this will prevent any gaps. You will then have to double-check the next wall by drawing another plumb line. Now continue papering the wall.

A few obstacles you'll always come across 

Doors. You'll be very lucky if your wallpaper matches up at your door frames! Most of the time you will have to cut around it and nice and neat too. Here's how to do it: If you come up to the door, just start hang the wallpaper like you would normally.

Gently feel the position of the frame through the paper and mark where the frame has to be cut out from the paper. Start cutting in towards the frame from the paper that covers the doors and which will be discarded.

That way you have the least chance of getting it wrong. Get rid of most of the discard paper (so you can work better) and trim the wallpaper neatly around the frame.

Sockets and switches. Always turn the electricity off if you want to work behind the socket or switch. Identify the shape of the socket/switch behind the paper, and cut, starting in the middle, towards the edge of the paper that needs to be removed.

Loosen the socket or switch, cut away the excess paper and neatly fold the rest behind the socket/switch.

Light fittings and other circular objects. Again lightly feel the shape of the object through the overhanging paper. Cut from the center of the circle out to the edge of the shape (so that it will look like a pie-shape) and fold the paper away. Trim away the excess paper. 

Top tips for a better finish

Nothing is more annoying than having to fish your brush out of the bucket and getting paste all over your hands. There are now brushes available that you can hook on the rim of the bucket, leaving you with clean hands.

Make sure you check your paste when you hang vinyl wallpaper, as vinyl has difficulty sticking to itself.

To remove air bubbles, it is very important to work quick and neat. Make a small incision in the air bubble when the paper is still wet, apply some paste behind it, and carefully smooth the paper over.

Always be careful when you use the seam roller. Whereas it might help you smoothing the edges of your wallpaper, it also might smooth your pattern if you're not careful! It can also leave a sheen on certain paper, so practice on a test bit first, to establish the amount of pressure it allows you to use.

Don't get paste on your table! It can be difficult sometimes to get wallpaper paste off the front of your wallpaper, so be careful.

In order to reduce the amount of off-cuts, it is sometimes better to use two rolls at the same time to align the pattern of your wallpaper.

It is not advisable to use a roller to apply paste to your wallpaper, unless the paper is really thick. If it's too thin, your paper will stick and roll around your roller. 

Turn off radiators in the room you want to wallpaper, especially if you have to wallpaper behind them. The heat from the radiator is likely to dry out the paper too quickly, leaving it to come off the wall. 

How To Hang Or Paste A Wall Wallpaper?